Hassan Arafat

Hassan Arafat Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Professor - Water and Environmental Engineering
Tel.: +(971)28109119
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Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA (2000)

B.Sc., Chemical Engineering, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan (1996).

After obtaining his PhD from the University of Cincinnati in 2000, Dr. Arafat worked (2000-2003) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) (Illinois, USA) as a researcher and project manager for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). His research at ANL focused on separation processes development for nuclear waste treatment at the DOE sites in the United States. Between 2003 and 2010, Dr. Arafat served as a faculty member at the Chemical Engineering Department at An-Najah University (Nablus, Palestine) and as the director of the "Water Technologies Research Unit" in that department. In 2010, he joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as a visiting scholar for six months, after which he moved to Abu Dhabi (UAE) where he is now employed as an Associate Professor in the Water and Environmental Engineering Program at Masdar Institute. The focus of Dr. Arafat’s current research is on sustainable desalination processes and innovative membrane technologies. During his career so far, Dr. Arafat has received 14 research grants, totaling USD $8.25Million. He is a recipient of several prestigious awards. Most notable among these are the Mondialogo Award by Daimler Co. and UNESCO in 2005 and the University of Cincinnati Distinguished Dissertation Fellowship in 1999 (one of only two fellowships awarded in open competition among PhD candidates from all University of Cincinnati colleges). Dr. Arafat also received three international research fellowships; two German DAAD Fellowships in 1995 and 2007 and the Open Society institute/Soros Foundation Fellowship (NY, USA) in 2009. He has co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal publications, conference papers, and official technical reports (published by the US-DOE). He has also delivered 19 invited presentations/lectures at international events and institutes throughout the world, and has supervised 13 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.


Research Interests:

Current research interests include:

  • Development, characterization, and testing of novel, high-flux and fouling-resistant membranes for desalination applications by membrane distillation and reverse osmosis
  • Thermodynamic and economic modeling of membrane distillation systems
  • Sustainability assessment of desalination processes
  • Development and assessment of innovative solar desalination technologies
  • Boron removal from desalinated water
  • Environmental evaluation of desalination processes using Life Cycle Analysis tools
  • Sustainable solid waste management strategies

Additionally, Dr. Arafat previously had research interests in adsorption, solvent extraction, and hazardous and nuclear waste treatment. He also has academic interests in quality assurance in higher education.


Advisor to Current Masdar Institute Students:

  • Savvina Loutatidou   
  • Jehad Kharraz   
  • Sanaa Iqbal Pirani (PhD)


At Masdar Institute

  • WEN502- Industrial Ecology (MSc-Level): Quantitative techniques for life cycle analysis of the impacts of materials extraction, processing use, and recycling; and economic analysis of materials processing, products, and markets. Student teams undertake a major case study of an energy related product/process using the latest methods of analysis and computer‐based models of materials process.
  • WEN614-Sustainable Desalination Processes (PhD/MSc-Level): Introduces key issues related to promoting sustainable desalination operations in today’s desalination industry. The course analyzes developments in the desalination industry using the three elements of sustainability: cost society, and the environment. The course covers: i) environmental impacts of desalination processes, ii) designing safe and sustainable intake and outfall systems for desalination plants, iii) assessing economic feasibility of new desalination processes, iv) evaluation of renewable‐energy powered desalination processes, v) application of membrane distillation in desalination, and vi) recent technological improvements for enhanced desalination processes.

Courses taught at previous institute: Solid waste management, Energy and environment, Water treatment processes and systems, Mass transfer, Unit operation, Membrane processes and desalination, Fluid mechanics, Statistical methods for engineers, Engineering economy.

Postdocs/graduate students supervised:

  • Dr. Rinku Thomas, Postdoctoral Fellow, Masdar Institute (2011- )
  • Dr. Elena Guillen-Burrieza, Postdoctoral Fellow, Masdar Institute (2011- )
  • Sanaa Pirani, PhD student, thesis subject: Sustainable Solid Waste Management Strategy for Abu Dhabi, Masdar Institute (2012- )
  • Kelifa Adem, M.Sc. student, thesis subject: Fouling in MD processes, Masdar Institute (2012-)
  • Ali Farhat, Research Scientist, Masdar Institute (2011-2012)
  • Tariq Al-Sarkal, M.Sc. student, thesis subject: Life Cycle Analysis of desalination systems, Masdar Institute (2011-2013)
  • Lin Li, M.Sc. student, thesis subject: Novel membranes for membrane distillation process, Masdar Institute (2011-2013)
  • Stephen Fadeyi, M.Sc. student (co-advisor), thesis subject: Life Cycle Analysis of carbon capture technology, Masdar Institute (2011-2013)
  • Rasha Saffarini, M.Sc. student, thesis subject: Development of renewable-energy powered membrane distillation process, Masdar Institute (2010-2012). Winner of Masdar Institute’s Best Thesis Award for the 2012 Class.
  • Kenan Jijakli, M.Sc. student, thesis subject: Environmental Assessment using LCA approach: a case study on solar desalination and waste-to-energy technologies, Masdar Institute (2010-2012)
  • Bilal Abu-Tarboosh, M.Sc student (co-advisor), Thesis subject: Preparation of thin-film-composite polyamide membranes for desalination using novel hydrophilic surface modifying macromolecules, Univ. of Ottawa (2006-2008)
  • Majdi Abu-Awwad, M.Sc. student, Thesis subject: Medical waste management, An-Najah Univ. (2005-2008)
  • Jafar Eid, M.Sc. student, Thesis subject: Solid waste management, An-Najah Univ. (2004-2007)

Selected academic and professional services:

  • Member of Program Management Office/Technical Expert, Masdar’s Utility-Scale Water Desalination Plant Powered by Renewable Energy Project (2012-Present). Scheduled for operation in 2020, this will be the world’s largest renewable energy-powered desalination plant
  • Chairman, Student Admissions Committee, Masdar Institute, UAE (2012)
  • Program Coordinator, Water and Environmental Engineering Program, Masdar Institute, UAE (2011-2012)
  • Member, “UAE Water Think Tank” group, by invitation of the UAE Prime Minister’s Office (2012-Present)
  • Editorial board member of International Journal of Water Sciences, The Scientific World Journal, Journal of Membrane Sciences and Separation Technology
  • Scientific committee member, International Scientific Conference on Pervaporation, Vapor Permeation and Membrane Distillation, Torun, Poland,  12-15 May, 2013
  • Scientific committee member, 1st International Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology (MEMDES), Sitges, Spain, 7-10 April 2013
  • International Advisory Committee member, the 6th Jordan International Chemical Engineering Conference, Amman-Jordan, March 12-14, 2012
  • Organizing committee member, 1st International Conference on Desalination and the Environment (ICODE 2011), Abu Dhabi, UAE, 29 Oct.-1 Nov. 2011
  • Reviewer a number of scholarly journals, including: Water Research, Journal of Membrane Science, Chemical Engineering Journal, Desalination, Separation Science and Technology, Waste Management, Waste Management and Research, Journal of Environmental Management, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Desalination and Water Treatment, Journal of Membrane Sciences and Separation Technology, ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
  • External referee of research grant proposals for a number of academic intuitions worldwide
  • Delivered 19 keynote speeches, seminars, and invited presentations at a number of international conferences and academic institutions.
  • Session chair at many international scientific conferences
  • Elected Member, College of Engineering Council, An-Najah Univ., Palestine, 2006- 2007
  • Member of a team that drafted the National Strategy for Solid Waste Management in Palestine (2010). Acted in my capacity as a consultant hired by the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) office in Palestine
  • Member of the American Standard of Testing and Material (ASTM) International Committee D-28 on Activated Carbon, USA (2005-2010)
  • President of Graduate Student Association, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, USA (1999-2000)



Dr. Arafat’s research projects focus on developing sustainable desalination processes through innovative membrane technologies. This includes synthesis, characterization, and process testing of novel, high-flux and fouling-resistant membranes for desalination applications, especially in membrane distillation (MD) and reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, he has projects on system, economic, and thermodynamic modeling of MD processes. Below is a list of his current or recently completed research projects.

Project (1): Understanding and mitigating fouling in membrane distillation processes

Fouling is one of the main drawbacks of membrane-based desalination processes as it reduces the flux and the quality of the produced water. Although membrane distillation (MD) is not a pressure driven process and uses hydrophobic membranes that “repel water”, fouling and scaling processes occur, as our research has shown. In this project, we study the mechanisms through which fouling and scaling happen on the MD membranes, as well as the impacts of these fouling phenomena on the MD process. Our goal is to ultimately mitigate this problem by identifying guidelines for MD operation, synthesizing fouling-resistant membranes, and developing effective and practical protocols for cleaning fouled membranes. To do so, we start by characterizing the fouled membranes in terms of the morphological features relevant for the MD process, such as; pore size distribution, surface morphology, porosity, etc., as well as their change under MD operation. We then formulate a hypothesis about how fouling has occurred, after which we test the hypothesis using well-designed experiments. A number of advanced tools are used in this work including porometry equipment, scanning electron microscopy, surface contact angle tests, atomic force microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), to name a few. Main findings of this project so far have been the confirmation of the occurrence of fouling by scaling as a result of intermittent MD operation. This has proven that the current dry-out practice of many solar-MD systems can be harmful to the membranes currently used. It has been also proven that the membrane material type and properties clearly play a role in this regard, which is yet to be carefully understood.

Project (2): Development of novel PVDF membranes by phase inversion for membrane distillation applications

Membrane distillation (MD) is a technique involving the Non-isothermal transport of fluids, especially water, through membranes. The major barriers hindering the full commercialization of this process include MD membrane and module design, membrane pore wetting, low permeate flow rate, flux decay with time, as well as uncertain energy and economic costs. These challenges have attracted scientists and engineers striving for the best membrane performance, module and process design, among which the selection of membrane materials was the most important. A key influence for the MD membrane is the fabrication procedures which influence the morphology and porosity, thereby defining the performance efficiency of fabricated membranes.

Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) remains among the preferred options for MD membrane materials, because of the ease of PVDF dissolution in common organic solvents. As a result, porous PVDF membranes can be produced via phase inversion method. PVDF is a semi-crystalline fluoropolymer thermoplastic obtained by polymerizing vinylidene fluoride units. The major factor determining the type of phase separation that occurs for a system involving a semi crystalline polymer, such as PVDF, is the miscibility of the system, which is associated with the strength of polymer–diluents interactions. PVDF porous membranes can be easily produced by phase separation (i.e. phase inversion) process, simply immersing the cast solution film in a coagulant bath (i.e. non-solvent, frequently water). In this case, membrane porosity is controlled by additives in the casting solution (e.g., pore-forming agents) or by replacing water in the coagulation bath with a different non-solvent medium.

Additives can be used to impart pores, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, mechanical strength, antifouling properties and surface modification. A pore forming agent though diverse in the chemical nature is unanimous in it functional role of imparting a porous nature or enhancing the interconnectivity between pores. Pore forming agents do impart multifunctional effects, which may be synergistic or detrimental in end properties. A pore former can increase solution viscosity or accelerate the phase inversion process, to improve the membrane morphology, and to enhance the membrane separation as well as the performance.

In our research group, we are currently investigating the role of novel additives and process parameters in pore formation and also their influence on key membrane parameters such as morphology, hydrophobicity, Liquid entry Pressure [LEP], and pore size distribution [PSD], together with many other parameters such as mechanical strength and crystallinity. The final goal of the study is to identify and bring to practical application, suitable membranes which will stand the intricate demands of Membrane Distillation.

Various sophisticated analytical tools such as the Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] are used to unfold the structural constitution of the fabricated flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes. The pore characteristics are investigated using the Capillary Flow Porometry [CFP] and the surface interactions with water are evaluated using the Contact Angle Measurements.

Project (3): Performance and economic modeling of membrane distillation processes

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a seawater desalination process. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure and can tolerate feeds with high salinity, MD may be useful for desalination under condition for which reverse osmosis is not a good option. Moreover, solar-powered membrane distillation (SP-MD) desalination systems have been proposed as promising technology in off-grid areas with strong solar radiation. However, despite the various SP-MD pilot systems constructed and tested over the past two decades, such systems have not been commercialized or implemented on a large scale yet. Improved energy utilization and reduced water production cost in MD systems remain as important technical challenges. To promote the sustainability of MD, our main goal of this project is to provide insight on how the MD process can be better designed and optimized. This is achieved through MD system modeling and analysis. Our analysis includes thermodynamics, economical, and system design components.

In this project, the MD systems are evaluated in terms of several performance indicators, such as membrane flux achieved, energy consumption, gained output ratio (GOR), performance ratio, and the energy recovery scheme applied. A numerical model was constructed to evaluate how key performance parameters can be enhanced via certain operating parameters. The results of this study are used to suggest new areas of improvement for future MD projects. Economic evaluation is also carried out to understand the main contributors to water production cost in MD systems.

Finally, under this project, we also examine how optimization of the heat and mass transfer properties of the MD membrane can raise water flux and reduce specific energy consumption. Numerical modeling tools and factorial analysis are used to examine the effect of five MD membrane characteristics: porosity, tortuosity, thermal conductivity, pore diameter, and thickness. The water production cost (in USD/m3 of purified water) is calculated as a function of these parameters for an MD processes.

Project (4): Development of eco-friendly membranes from Poly(Lactic Acid) for applications in microfiltration and membrane distillation

In recent years, poly (lactic acid) has drawn much research attention due to its environment friendly and thermoplasticity. Electrospun PLA mats have been studied in several applications, mainly as scaffold for biomedical application. However, the application of electrospun PLA in membrane applications is limited by its poor mechanical strength. In this project, electrospun PLA membranes were synthesized, modified by annealing or hot pressing, and characterized as candidate materials for membrane applications. This project was conducted in collaboration with Prof. Raed Hashaikeh from the Material Science and Engineering program at Masdar Institute.

Post annealing heat treatment was found to drastically change the membrane structure and properties. For example, with increasing annealing time or annealing temperature, membranes with smaller pore size, narrower pore size distribution, lower porosity and lower contact angle were obtained. Also, both the tensile strength and elastic modulus improved significantly with annealing. Based on these properties, these membranes were proposed as microfiltration membranes. Vacuum filtration tests of a solution containing TiO2particles were conducted. The filtration tests showed that the annealing treatment, which varied the membrane properties, had a significant impact on membrane performance, in terms of both flux and particle rejection.

However, due to negative effect of annealing treatment on the membrane porosity and hydrophobicity, hot pressing was employed alternatively to improve the membrane properties for membrane distillation (MD). The effect of hot pressing temperature and pressure on the membrane structure, pore size and hydrophobicity were investigated. As the hot pressing temperature increases from 57˚C to 90˚C, smoother surface and lower contact angle with larger deviation were obtained, but with no significant impact on pore size. While in terms of hot pressing pressure, higher pressure leads to smaller pore size, with more consistent thickness and contact angle. We concluded that hot pressing is preferred from the view of pore size, porosity and contact angle for MD applicatioms.

Project (5): Reducing the environmental impacts of desalination processes using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) tools

As desalination technologies have been shown to be associated with considerable environmental impacts, environmental considerations are the drive behind a number of recent process changes in desalination plants. Commonly, the main contributors to these environmental impacts in desalination include energy consumption, water intake, brine discharge, and chemical usage. One tool to assess the environmental impacts of desalination processes is by conducting Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). LCA allows us to quantify the environmental gains (or losses) incurred by shifting from one design choice to another within a desalination plant. An LCA study considers all the environmental impacts associated with a product or system throughout its life cycle (i.e., from cradle to grave).

To date, two major studies were conducted under this project within our group. In the first study, we assessed and compared the environmental impacts of three alternatives for supplying desalinated water to remote off-grid communities within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two alternatives are via autonomous solar-powered water desalination systems, compared to a third option where water is supplied from a central Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination plant. The three options are: (1) a solar still, (2) a solar photo-voltaic powered RO system, and (3) water delivery by tankers from an existing RO plant. In the second study, two systems for intake water pretreatment (for fouling control) in RO desalination plants were compared: sedimentation-based and membrane filtration pretreatment systems. We assessed and compared the environmental impacts of both alternatives using design and operational data for the sedimentation based system from the Fujairah-1 plant (in UAE). The alternative ultrafiltration system was fully designed to retrofit the current sedimentation system at Fujairah. By use of LCA, a comprehensive environmental modeling of the considered options for both case studies was conducted.

By comparing the sedimentation and ultrafiltration pretreatment processes, the latter scenario was shown to have reasonably lower environmental impact. The main driver behind these results was the difference in energy consumption, which is behind the major part of the environmental impact .

Project (6): Development of strategies for sustainable municipal solid waste management

Waste and water are two inter-related elements of sustainable urban development. Solid waste materials usually have a significant water footprint (virtual water content), which presents the amount of water that went into producing those wasted materials in the first place. Reducing the amount of waste is a significant indirect way of increasing the availability of precious fresh water, which is probably created through a desalination process to start with. However, the research tools needed to deal with solid waste are very different from those employed in desalination research, although they can be just as creative and exciting!

Waste management has to do with the collection, storage, and disposal of waste.  It is crucial that modern cities have a well-developed waste management system, especially from the perspective of sustainability. Abu Dhabi (UAE) is no exception. In fact, Abu Dhabi’s rate of waste generation is higher than that of many other countries and the emirate has already lost 1,800 hectares of land to landfills. Currently, more than 75% of the waste produced in the UAE ends up in landfills.  This has many negative consequences.  For example, half of camel deaths in the UAE are due to suffocation by littered plastic bags. Abu Dhabi aims to divert 90% of its waste from landfills by 2018 and a member of our research group is working to help facilitate reaching this goal.

The hospitality sector in the UAE is forecasted to grow at more than 10% annually over the next four years, greater than the predicted rate of the growth of the overall Arabian Gulf market.  Moreover, the Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority (ADTA) has aimed to reduce the amount of hotel waste going to landfills by 20% as a first step in its environmental program. This waste includes food waste, which is the most significant component of hospitality waste. The issue of food waste is a global problem, and is an area on which little research is done.  This problem is particularly significant in Abu Dhabi.  What is more, food waste is one of the most important materials to divert from landfills, due to the fact that it decomposes to create methane, a potent greenhouse gas which significantly contributes to climate change. In addition, by targeting the hospitality industry, a smaller sector (relative to households) may be focused on, but one that tends to produce more food waste per capita.  Along the same lines, the initial implementation of policies and subsequent follow-up actions would be easier in the hospitality sector than in households.

This research aims to focus on the area of food waste management in the hospitality industry, with an emphasis on the situation in the Middle East region, especially the United Arab Emirates.  It will include the development of food waste management strategies which not only address the handling of the waste once it has been produced, but also explore waste minimization, taking into consideration factors such as the culture of this region.  Relevant strategies/measures being implemented in developed countries would be studied, and with input from local environment and waste management stakeholders, it would be explored how such measures may be implemented in the UAE and beyond. The study involves close interaction with various institutions in the UAE: the Environmental Agency Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority, the Center of Waste Management Abu Dhabi, waste management companies such as Averda, and various hotels and restaurants.



Publications (see publication metrics:  http://scholar.google.ae/citations?user=TBmvPyMAAAAJ&hl=en)

Selected Refereed Journal Papers

  • T. Al-Sarkal and H. A. Arafat, Ultrafiltration versus sedimentation-based Pretreatment in Fujairah-1 RO Plant: Environmental Impact Study, Desalination, 317, 55-66 (2013).
  • E. Guillen-Burrieza, R. Thomas, B. Mansoor, D. Johnson, N. Hilal, H. A. Arafat, Effect of Dry-out on the Fouling of PVDF and PTFE Membranes under Conditions Simulating Intermittent Seawater Membrane Distillation (SWMD), J. Membrane Science, in press (2013).
  • L. Li, R. Hashaikeh, H. A. Arafat, Development of new eco-efficient micro-porous membranes via electrospinning and annealing of poly(lactic acid), J. Membrane Science, 436, 57-67 (2013).
  • Ahsan, A., M. Imteaz, R. Dev, H. A. Arafat, Numerical Models of Solar Distillation Device: Present and Previous, Desalination, 311, 173-181 (2013).
  • R.B. Saffarini, B. Mansoor, R. Thomas, H. A. Arafat, Effect of temperature-dependent microstructure evolution on pore wetting in PTFE membranes under membrane distillation conditions, J. Membrane Science, 429, 282-294 (2013).
  • B. Singh Lalia, E. Guillen, H. A. Arafat, R. Hashaikeh, Fabrication and characterization of polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) electrospun membranes for direct contact membrane distillation, J. Membrane Science, 428, 104-115 (2013).
  • A. Farhat, F. Ahmad, H. A. Arafat, Analytical techniques for boron quantification supporting desalination processes: A review,Desalination 310, 9–17 (2013).
  • ·  A. Farhat, F. Ahmad, N. Hilal, H. A. Arafat, Boron Removal in New Generation Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membranes Using Two-Pass RO without pH Adjustment, Desalination 310, 50–59 (2013).
  • ·  M. I. Ali, E. K. Summers, H. A. Arafat, J. H. Lienhard, Effects of Membrane Properties on Water Production Cost in Small Scale Membrane Distillation Systems, Desalination 306, 60–71 (2012).
  • R. B. Saffarini, E. K. Summers, H. A. Arafat, J. H. Lienhard, Economic Evaluation of Stand-Alone Solar Powered Membrane Distillation Systems, Desalination 299, 55–62 (2012).
  • E. K. Summers, H. A. Arafat, J. H. Lienhard, Energy efficiency comparison of single-stage membrane distillation (MD) desalination cycles in different configurations, Desalination 290, 54–66 (2012).
  • R. B. Saffarini, E. K. Summers, H. A. Arafat, J. H. Lienhard, Technical Evaluation of Stand-Alone Solar Powered Membrane Distillation Systems, Desalination, 286, pp. 332-341 (2012).
  • K. Jijakli, H. A. Arafat, S. Kennedy, P. Mande, V. Theeyattuparampil, How green solar desalination really is? Environmental assessment using life-cycle analysis (LCA) approach, Desalination, 287, 123-131 (2012).
  • A. Abusafa, H. A. Arafat, M. Abu-Baker, K. N. Khalili, Utilization of Drinking Water from Rainwater Harvesting Wells in the Palestinian Territories: Assessment of Contamination Risk, International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 9(3/4), 358-371 (2012).
  • A. Al-Salaymeh, I. A. Al-Khatib, H. A. Arafat, Towards Sustainable Water Quality: Management of Rainwater Harvesting Cisterns in Southern Palestinian Territory, Water Resources Management J.,25(6), 1721-1736  (2011).
  • D. Rana, Y. Kim, T. Matsuura, H. A. Arafat, "Development of Antifouling Thin-Film-Composite Membranes for Seawater Desalination", J. Membrane Science, 367, 110-118 (2011).
  • M.C. García-Payo, M. Essalhi, M. Khayet, K. Charfi, and H. A. Arafat, Water desalination by membrane distillation using copolymer hollow fiber membranes, Membrane Water Treatment, 1(3), 215-230 (2010).
  • H. A. Arafat, S. B. Aase, A. J. Bakel, D. L. Bowers, A. V. Gelis, M. C. Regalbuto, and G. F. Vandegrift, The Application of In-Situ Formed Mixed Iron Oxides in the Removal of Strontium and Actinides from Nuclear Tank Waste, AIChE J., 56(11), 3012-3020 (2010).
  • I. Khatib and H. A. Arafat, A review of residential solid waste management in the occupied Palestinian Territory: a window for improvement?, Waste Management and Research, 28, 481–488 (2010).
  • B. Abu Tarbush, H. A. Arafat, T. Matsuura, and D. Rana, Recent advances in thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for desalination, J. Applied Membrane Science & Technology, 10, 41-50 (2009).
  • Khatib and H. A. Arafat, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Desalinated Water, Groundwater and Rain-Fed Cisterns in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, Desalination, 249, 1165-1170 (2009).
  • I. A. Al-Khatib, H. A. Arafat, R. Daoud, H. Shwahneh, Enhanced Solid Waste Management by Understanding the Effects of Gender, Income, Marital Status, and Religious Convictions on Attitudes and Practices Related to Street Littering in Nablus- Palestinian Territory,Waste Management, 29(1), 449-455 (2009).
  • B.J. Abu Tarboush, D. Rana, T. Matsuura, H.A. Arafat, and R.M. Narbaitz, Preparation of Thin-Film-Composite Polyamide Membranes for Desalination Using Novel Hydrophilic Surface Modifying Macromolecules, J. Membrane Science, 325(1), 166-175 (2008).
  • H. Susanto, H.A. Arafat, E.M. Janssen, M. Ulbricht, Ultrafiltration of polysaccharide-protein mixtures: Elucidation of fouling mechanisms and fouling control by membrane surface modification, Separation and Purification Technology, 63(3), 558-565 (2008).
  • I. Al-Khatib, H. A. Arafat, T. Basheer, H. Shawahneh, A. Salahat, J. Eid, and W. Ali, Trends and Problems of Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Seven Palestinian Districts,Waste Management, 27(12), 1910-1919 (2007).
  • H. Arafat, I. Al-Khatib, R. Daoud, and H. Shwahneh, Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the Middle East: effects of education level, age, and type of residence, Waste Management & Research, 25(4), 363-370 (2007).
  • H. A. Arafat, Simple physical treatment for the reuse of wastewater from textile industry in the Middle East, J. Environ. Eng. Sci., 6(1), 115-122 (2007).
  • H. A. Arafat, I. Al-Khatib, and A. Abu Zahra, Effects of prevailing conditions during second Palestinian uprising on solid waste management system in Nablus city in Palestine, Intl. J. of Environ. Health Res., 16(4), 281 – 287 (2006).
  • H. A. Arafat, F. Ahnert, and N. G. Pinto, On the Adsorption of Aromatics on Oxygenated Activated Carbon in Non-aqueous Adsorption Media, Sep. Sci. & Technol., 39(1), 43-62 (2004).
  • F. Ahnert, H. A. Arafat, and N. G. Pinto, A Study of the Influence of Hydrophobicity of Activated Carbon on the Adsorption Equilibrium of Aromatics in Non-Aqueous Media, Adsorption 9, 311-319 (2003).
  • R. A. Leonard, S. B. Aase, H. A. Arafat, C. Conner, D. B. Chamberlain, J. R. Falkenberg, M. C. Regalbuto, and G. F. Vandegrift, Experimental Verification of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction for Removal of Cesium from Tank Waste, Sol. Extr. Ion Exch. 21(4), 505-526 (2003).
  • H. A. Arafat and I. M. Abu-Reesh, Ultrafiltration of Labaneh Whey: Effect of Operating Parameters, Arabian J. for Sci. & Eng. 26(2C), 55–67 (2001).
  • H. S. Rho, H. A. Arafat, B. Kountz, R. C. Buchanan, N. G. Pinto, and P. L. Bishop, Decomposition of Hazardous Organic Materials in the Solidification/Stabilization Process Using Catalytic-Activated Carbon,Waste Management 21(4), 343–356 (2001).
  • ·   M. Franz, H. A. Arafat, and N. G. Pinto, Effect of Chemical Surface Heterogeneity on the Adsorption Mechanism of Dissolved Aromatics on Activated Carbon, Carbon 38(13), 1807–1819 (2000)
  • H. A. Arafat, M. Franz, and N. G. Pinto, Effect of Salt on the Mechanism of Adsorption of Aromatics on Activated Carbon,Langmuir 15(18), 5997–6003 (1999)
  • V. M. Hebatpuria, H. A. Arafat, H. S. Rho, P. L. Bishop, N. G. Pinto, and R. C. Buchanan, Immobilization of Phenol in Cement-Based Solidified/Stabilized Hazardous Wastes Using Regenerated Activated Carbon:  Leaching Studies, J. Hazard. Mater. 70(3), 117–138 (1999).
  • H. A. Arafat, V. M. Hebatpuria, H. S. Rho, N. G. Pinto, P. L. Bishop, and R. C. Buchanan, Immobilization of Phenol in Cement-Based Solidified/Stabilized Hazardous Wastes Using Regenerated Activated Carbon:  Role of Carbon, J. Hazard. Mater. 70(3), 139–156 (1999).
  • V. M. Hebatpuria, H. A. Arafat, P. L. Bishop, and N. G. Pinto, Leaching Behavior of Selected Aromatics in Cement-Based Solidification/Stabilization Under Different Leaching Tests, Environ. Eng. Sci. 16(6), 451–463 (1999).

Book Chapters

  • H. A. Arafat and A. Arafat, Prediction of Generation Rate of Municipal Solid Waste in Palestinian Territories Based on Key Factors Modeling, in "Solid Waste Management and Environmental Remediation", T. Faerber and J. Herzog (Editors), Nova Publishers, NY, ISBN: 978-1607417613 (2010).

Selected Conference Papers (Refereed. Full proceedings papers or extended abstracts)

  • E. Guillen-Burrieza, R. Thomas, H. A. Arafat, Influence of Intermittent Operation on Membrane Wettability in Membrane Distillation Systems, Proceedings of the Desalination for the Environment: Clean Water and Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, April 23–26, 2012.
  • K. Jijakli, T. Al-Sarkal, H. A. Arafat, Environmental Impact Assessment of Design Choices for Autonomous Desalination Systems and Pretreatment for RO plants, Proceedings of theDesalination for the Environment: Clean Water and EnergyConference, Barcelona, Spain, April 23–26, 2012.
  • S. Pirani, L. Natarajan, Z. Abbas, H. A. Arafat, Life Cycle Assessment of Membrane Bioreactor versus CAS Wastewater Treatment: Masdar City and Beyond, Proceedings of the 6th Jordan International Chemical Engineering Conference, Amman-Jordan, pp 59-68, March 12-14, 2012.
  • R. Saffarini, H. A. Arafat, R. Thomas, Influence of Pore Structure on Membrane Wettability in Membrane Distillation, Proceedings of the 6th Jordan International Chemical Engineering Conference, Amman-Jordan, pp 303-307, March 12-14, 2012.
  • L. W. Jung, M. R. Al-Shehhi, R. Saffarini, B. Warshay, H. A. Arafat, Paper or Plastic? Clearing Misconceptions on Environmental Impacts of Coffee Cups Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), First International Conference on Water and Environmental Sustainability (ICWEE2011), Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, 14-17 November 2011, pp. 563-569 (2011).
  • S. P. Parajuli, M. S. Naizghi, B. Warshay, H. A. Arafat, A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Using Virgin Crushed Aggregate (VCA) and Recycled Waste Concrete Aggregate (RCA) in Road Construction, First International Conference on Water and Environmental Sustainability (ICWEE2011), Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, 14-17 November 2011, pp. 312-316 (2011).
  • R. B. Saffarini, E. K. Summers, H. A. Arafat, J. H. Lienhard, Assessment of Solar Powered Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Membrane Distillation and Related Technologies, Ravello, Italy, October  9-12, 2011, pp. 72-75 (2011).
  • H. A. Arafat and A. El-Qanni, Can religion serve as a catalyst for sustainable waste management? Islam as a case study, Proceedings of the 11th Mediterranean Research Meeting, Florence, Italy, March 24-27, 2010.
  • B.H. Sader, H.A. Arafat, and R.M. Ismail, Effect of Academic Field on Student Evaluations of Faculty Members’ Teaching Performance: A Palestinian Experience, Proceedings of the Teaching and Learning 2008 Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 26-28 May 2008: pp. 213-220, (2008)
  • H.A. Arafat, B.H. Sader, and R.M. Ismail, What does it Take for Instructors to Score High in Rapport and Grading on Student Rating Forms at a Palestinian University?, Proceedings of the Teaching and Learning 2008 Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, 26-28 May 2008: pp. 650-655, (2008)
  • H. A. Arafat, A. M. El-Hamouz,  A. Abu-Safa and M. Almasri,Methodology for Disinfectant Dose Evaluation, Modeling, and Optimization in Drinking Water in Small Middle Eastern Cities - Nablus City (Palestine) as a Case Study, Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Water Resources in Mediterranean Basin; Tripoli, Lebanon; Nov 1-3, 2006..
  • H. A. Arafat and M. S. Abu-Baker, Assessment of the Conditions of Rain Water Harvesting Wells Used by Palestinian Villagers- Ya'bad Village (Jenin-Palestine) as a Case Study, Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Water Resources in Mediterranean Basin; Tripoli, Lebanon; Nov 1-3, 2006.
  • C. Pereira, G. Vandegrift, M. Regalbuto, S. Aase, H. A. Arafat, A. Bakel, D. Bowers, J. Byrnes, M. Clark, J. Emery, J. Falkenberg, A. Gelis, L. Hafenrichter, Y. Tsai, K. Quigley, M. Vander Pol, J. Laidler,Lab-scale demonstration of the UREX+ process, Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society ANS 2004 Annual Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Jun 13-17, 2004.
  • A. Bakel, S. Aase, H. A. Arafat, D. Bowers, J. Byrnes, M. Clark, J. Emery, J. Falkenberg, A. Gelis, C. Pereira, L. Hafenrichter, J. Laidler, M. Regalbuto, Y. Tsai, K. Quigley, M. Vander Pol, G. Vandegrift, Lab-scale demonstration of the UREX+ process, Proceedings of the American Chemical Society ACS 227th National Meeting ; Anaheim, CA ; Mar 28 - Apr 1, 2004.
  • G. F. Vandegrift, M. C. Regalbuto, S. B. Aase, H. A. Arafat, A. J. Bakel, D. L. Bowers, J. P. Byrnes, M. A. Clark, J. W. Emery, J. R. Falkenberg, A. V. Gelis, L. D. Hafenrichter, R. A. Leonard, C. Pereira, K. J. Quigley, Y. Tsai, M. H. Vander Pol, and J. J. Laidler, Lab-Scale demonstration of the UREX+ Process, Proc. of the Waste Management-2004 Conference, Tucson, AZ, USA, February 29– March 4, 2004.
  • H. A. Arafat, S. Aase, A. Gelis, M. Regalbuto, J. Sedlet, and G. Vandegrift, Removing Sr and Actinides from SRS Tank Waste Using In-Situ Formed Mixed Iron Oxides, Proceedings of the 27th Actinide Separations Conference, Argonne, IL, USA, June 9-12, 2003
  • D. B. Chamberlain, S. B. Aase, H. A. Arafat, C. Conner, R. A.Leonard, M. C. Regalbuto, G. F. Vandegrift, Proof-of-concept flowsheet tests for cesium removal from tank waste by caustic-side solvent extraction, 2001 MRS Fall Meeting ; Boston, MA, USA; Nov 26-30, 2001 Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 713, Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV ; edited by B. P. McGrail, et al., MRS : pp. 877-44 (2002).
  • R. A. Leonard, S. B. Aase, H. A. Arafat, D. B. Chamberlain, C. Conner, M. C. Regalbuto, and G. F. Vandegrift, Proof-of-Concept Flowsheet Tests for Cesium Removal from Tank Waste by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction, Proceedings of the 25th Actinide Separation Conf., Boise, ID, USA, May 14–18, 2001
  • H. A. Arafat, V. M. Hebatpuria, H. S. Rho, N. G. Pinto, P. L. Bishop, and R. C. Buchanan, Utilization of Reactivated Carbon in Stabilization of Organics in Solidification/Stabilization Processes for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Extended Abstracts, the 24th Biennial Conf. on Carbon, Charleston, SC, USA, July 11–16, 1999, Vol. 2, pp. 448–449 (1999)
  • H. A. Arafat and N. G. Pinto, Hydrogen Bonding in the Adsorption of Liquid Aromatics on Oxygen-Containing Activated Carbon, Extended Abstracts, the 24th Biennial Conf. on Carbon, Charleston, SC, USA, July 11–16, 1999, Vol. 1, pp. 146–147 (1999)
  • M. Franz, H. A. Arafat, C. C. Leng, and N. G. Pinto, An Investigation of the Effect of Chemical Surface Heterogeneity of Carbon on the Adsorption of Selected Liquid Organics, Proc. of the 3rd Int. Symp. on Effects of Surface Heterogeneity in Adsorption and Catalysis on Solids, Torun, Poland, August 9–16, 1998, pp. 91–92 (1998)